Damocles Report for text/StickInsect_TheAge.txt
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1 theage.com.au[1] (image) [2] Home[3] World News[4] Article - national[5] -world[6] - opinion[7] - business[8] - technology[9] - sport[10] -realfooty[11] entertainment[12] - multimedia[13] .......... classifieds[14] jobs[15] property[16] cars[17] place an ad[18] - - - extra personal finance[19] travel[20] education[21] - - - subscribe home delivery[22] eNewsletter[23] - - - archives[24]  
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3 'Use it or lose it' evolution theory in dispute  
4 January 17 2003  
5 Biologists have found a species that has lost and regained the ability to fly. Guy Gugliotta reports.  
6 Biologists say they have found what is quite likely to be the first |25 words|documented case of "re-evolution", suggesting that nature does indeed offer second chances - a species can evolve a new characteristic, lose it and then regain it. Walking Sticks, Just Winging It (washingtonpost.com) Matching text
7 |24 words|That's a radical idea, because for most of modern times, scientists have taught that evolution, at least in part, functions on the principle of |22 words|"use it or lose it". This is one reason seals no longer have paws, moles see badly and humans lack heavy fur. Walking Sticks, Just Winging It (washingtonpost.com) Matching text Matching text
8 The biologists are |43 words|challenging that assumption based on its analysis of DNA from 37 species of the insect order Phasmatodea - commonly known as "walking sticks" - which showed that they evolved from winged to wingless and back again. In fact, walking sticks made the shift four times. The Raven Matching text
9 |39 words|The discovery calls into question one of the tenets of evolutionary biology: that if a species loses a complex characteristic, the gene or genes that express it will subsequently mutate so much that the function can never be recovered. Walking Sticks, Just Winging It (washingtonpost.com) Matching text
10 "We were shocked," said team leader Michael |45 words|Whiting, an evolutionary biologist from Brigham Young University. "Even though there is no empirical evidence, it has been dogma for two centuries that something like flight requires so many complicated systems that it could only be evolved once, and would be very difficult to reinvent." Walking Sticks, Just Winging It (washingtonpost.com) Matching text
11 Mr |19 words|Whiting said he did most of his research in New Guinea, home to a large selection of the insects. There are more than 3200 species of walking sticks worldwide and they come in winged and wingless varieties. Walking Sticks, Just Winging It (washingtonpost.com) Matching text
12 |14 words|The smallest is about the size of a person's pinkie, while the largest about 45 centimetres - is the longest insect in the world. Walking Sticks, Just Winging It (washingtonpost.com) Matching text
13 Walking sticks survive by using |15 words|camouflage that makes them look like sticks, leaves, tree bark, shoots of grass or reeds. Mr Whiting said the 45-centimetre |12 words|walking stick hangs from a branch and sways like a dead stick. Walking Sticks, Just Winging It (washingtonpost.com) Matching text Matching text
14 |18 words|The walking sticks' closest relative is the "web spinner", which sprays webs from its front feet - like Spiderman. Walking Sticks, Just Winging It (washingtonpost.com) Matching text
15 |12 words|In its analysis, the team examined three genes from winged and wingless |40 words|walking sticks. The analysis enabled the team to rank those species from most primitive to least primitive. The DNA from the most primitive species most closely matched that of the web spinners, pointing towards a common ancestor for both insects. Walking Sticks, Just Winging It (washingtonpost.com) Matching text Matching text
16 |16 words|"The thought was that the insects that did not have wings were probably the most advanced," Mr Whiting said. Walking Sticks, Just Winging It (washingtonpost.com) Matching text
17 |52 words|For walking sticks, the theory held, being wingless meant that the females, at least, could devote greater energy to egg production. Also, while primitive walking sticks would have needed wings to get away from predators, more advanced species would have developed such good disguises that they would no longer need to fly. Walking Sticks, Just Winging It (washingtonpost.com) Matching text
18 |25 words|The first surprise was that all of the most primitive walking sticks, unlike the web spinners next to them in the evolutionary tree, were wingless, Mr Whiting said. Much further along, however, winged species |10 words|reappeared. Subsequently, winged species disappeared and reappeared three more times. Walking Sticks, Just Winging It (washingtonpost.com) Matching text Matching text
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21 Also in World  
22 Friends pay tribute to Bee Gee[31]  
23 Former president to face war crimes court[32]  
24 Bush enters fray over race case[33]  
25 Allies start to squabble over arms report[34]  
26 Big Apple goes crazy for world's biggest burger[35]  
27 FBI to probe Papua mine killings[36]  
28 Washington's softer line intended to appease[37]  
29 'Use it or lose it' evolution theory in dispute  
30 Israeli pilot joins shuttle flight[38]  
31 MOST VIEWED ARTICLES Today from midnight AEST 1.Tiny technology, big ideas[39] 2.Big fat slap in the face[40] 3.Clijsters puts perspective on Hewitt loss[41] 4.Discarded hard drives prove treasure trove of personal info[42] 5.Hewitt given no quarter[43] text[44] handheld[45] (how to)[46] membership[47] conditions[48] privacy[49] Copyright 2003 The Age Company Ltd advertise[50] contact us[51] (image)  
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Walking Sticks, Just Winging It (washingtonpost.com).

The Raven.