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  • @article{MZN2010,
    	vgclass =	{refpap},
    	author =	{Mews, Constant J. and Tomas Zahora
    	and Dmitri Nikulin and David Squire},
    	title =	{The \emph{Speculum morale} (c.\ 1300) and the study of
    	textual transformations: a research project in progress},
    	journal =	{Vincent of Beauvais Newsletter},
    	volume =	{35},
    	pages =	{5--15},
    	year =	{2010},
    	url =	{/publications/postscript/2010/MewsZahoraNikulinSquire2010.pdf},
    	abstract =	{The \emph{Speculum morale}, last printed in 1624 as the
    	third of four books making up the \emph{Speculum maius} of Vincent of
    	Beauvais, is an encyclopaedia of human behaviour, divided into three
    	constituent books.  Yet because of the coincidence of identical text in
    	the \emph{Speculum morale} and the \emph{Summa theologiae} of Thomas
    	Aquinas the attribution to Vincent has been seen as problematic at
    	least since the late fifteenth century.  In 1708 the French Dominican
    	scholar Jacques Echard published a massive (668pp) study of the
    	work---arguments that he subsequently summarized within his
    	continuation to Quetif's \emph{Scriptores ordinis praedicatorum}
    	(1719)---in which he demonstrated that the \emph{Speculum morale} cannot
    	have been written by Vincent of Beauvais.  Endowed with a prodigious
    	capacity to recognise and identify Latin texts, and influenced by early
    	enlightenment notions of plagiarism, Echard described how he came upon
    	this realisation in 1704 while working in the library of Saint-Victor.
    	He argued that the \emph{Speculum morale} had not only borrowed on
    	occasion from Aquinas but the entire work had been plagiarized from the
    	writings of various moral theologians from the thirteenth century:
    	Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274), Etienne de Bourbon (d. c. 1261), Peter of
    	Tarentaise (1225-1276), the Franciscan Richard of Middleton (c.
    	1249-1302), and an anonymous author of \emph{Tractatus de
    	consideratione novissimorum}. Echard's assessment of the \emph{Speculum
    	morale} as a derivative compilation has led to the work being largely
    	neglected by subsequent scholarship.
    	This article summarizes a research project on the \emph{Speculum
    	morale} currently being undertaken at Monash University, Australia that
    	seeks to rectify this situation. It considers the limitations of simply
    	dismissing the work as `plagiarism' and instead draws attention to the
    	potential significance of studying how texts can be subtly transformed
    	in the process of compilation. The project involves co-operation
    	between medievalists and IT specialists in transforming what is
    	commonly called `plagiarism' detection software into text similarity
    	detection software, with particular relevance to Latin texts.},